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  • IPB News Coverage: Use of PGPR to Accelerate Harvest Periods and Increase Production of Sweet Potatoes in TNGC

    The leadership of the Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, paid a field visit and harvested sweet potatoes in Cibuntu Village, Pasawahan District, Kuningan, West Java. Cibuntu Village is a supporting village for Mount Ciremai National Park (TNGC) which is located in Pasawahan District, Kuningan Regency. As a buffer village, Cibuntu Village has the potential for nature conservation and fertile agricultural land. Cibuntu villagers are known to be compact in nature conservation and agricultural activities. One of them is sweet potato farming.

    The visiting group consisted of the Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, Dr Sugiyanta, Deputy Dean for Resources, Cooperation and Development, Dr Suryo Wiyono, Deputy Dean for Academic and Student Affairs, Dr Afra D N Makalew and Secretary of the Department of Plant Protection, Dr Dewi Sartiami.

    “Sweet potato planting in Cibuntu Village implements PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizhobacteria) originating from TNGC. This PGPR was developed by one of our lecturers at the Plant Protection Department. This started with the scarcity of subsidized fertilizers in Cibuntu Village. TNGC sees this scarcity as an opportunity to make efforts to manage the ecosystem in Cibuntu Village, which is the village that supports the National Park by utilizing microbes as a substitute for chemical fertilizers, "said Dr. Sugiyanta.

    Based on Dr Sugiyanta's explanation, PGPR is bacteria that live around plant roots. These bacteria live in colonies covering the roots of plants. For plants, the presence of these microorganisms is very good, because these bacteria provide advantages in the process of plant physiology and growth.

    Cibuntu residents apply a combination of PGPR with manure to support the growth of sweet potatoes. The land used for planting sweet potatoes is 70 hectares.

    Cibuntu Village farmers are satisfied with the implementation of PGPR for sweet potato cultivation. According to them, the use of PGPR can accelerate the harvest period by one month and increase sweet potato production by up to 2.5 tons. The hope is that farmers can consistently use PGPR and manure as agricultural inputs. The implementation of PGPR can be an effort to maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the village that supports the Mount Ciremai National Park so that it is not damaged by contamination and chemical fertilizer residues. (** / Zul)

    Article in IPB News: Use of PGPR to Accelerate Harvest Periods and Increase Production of Sweet Potatoes in TNGC

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IPB News Coverage: Use of PGPR to Accelerate Harvest Periods and Increase Production of Sweet Potatoes in TNGC

The leadership of the Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, paid a field visit and harvested sweet potatoes in Cibuntu Village, Pasawahan District, Kuningan, West Java. Cibuntu Village is a supporting village for Mount Ciremai National Park (TNGC) which is located in Pasawahan District, Kuningan Regency. As a buffer village, Cibuntu Village has the potential for nature conservation and fertile agricultural land. Cibuntu villagers are known to be compact in nature conservation and agricultural activities. One of them is sweet potato farming.

The visiting group consisted of the Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, Dr Sugiyanta, Deputy Dean for Resources, Cooperation and Development, Dr Suryo Wiyono, Deputy Dean for Academic and Student Affairs, Dr Afra D N Makalew and Secretary of the Department of Plant Protection, Dr Dewi Sartiami.

“Sweet potato planting in Cibuntu Village implements PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizhobacteria) originating from TNGC. This PGPR was developed by one of our lecturers at the Plant Protection Department. This started with the scarcity of subsidized fertilizers in Cibuntu Village. TNGC sees this scarcity as an opportunity to make efforts to manage the ecosystem in Cibuntu Village, which is the village that supports the National Park by utilizing microbes as a substitute for chemical fertilizers, "said Dr. Sugiyanta.

Based on Dr Sugiyanta's explanation, PGPR is bacteria that live around plant roots. These bacteria live in colonies covering the roots of plants. For plants, the presence of these microorganisms is very good, because these bacteria provide advantages in the process of plant physiology and growth.

Cibuntu residents apply a combination of PGPR with manure to support the growth of sweet potatoes. The land used for planting sweet potatoes is 70 hectares.

Cibuntu Village farmers are satisfied with the implementation of PGPR for sweet potato cultivation. According to them, the use of PGPR can accelerate the harvest period by one month and increase sweet potato production by up to 2.5 tons. The hope is that farmers can consistently use PGPR and manure as agricultural inputs. The implementation of PGPR can be an effort to maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the village that supports the Mount Ciremai National Park so that it is not damaged by contamination and chemical fertilizer residues. (** / Zul)

Article in IPB News: Use of PGPR to Accelerate Harvest Periods and Increase Production of Sweet Potatoes in TNGC

IPB University News coverage: Science of Pest Control and Plant Diseases IPB University Becomes a Trendsetter in Indonesia

One of the agricultural problems is the uncontrolled attack of pests and diseases in plants. Pests and plant diseases are considered as the main problems in the agricultural production system in Indonesia which can cause yield losses of up to 30 percent per year. Therefore, efforts are needed to control pests and diseases so as not to have an adverse impact on crop yields both in quality and quantity. This effort begins with the formation of Human Resources (HR) who are qualified and with integrity to be able to contribute their knowledge comprehensively in handling pests and plant diseases.

The Department of Plant Protection or commonly abbreviated as PTN, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University has been established since 1950 under the name of the Entomology-Phytopathology Division. Change of name to "Plant Protection Department" since 2005.

The PTN department has become a trendsetter and at the same time a reference regarding the science of pests and plant diseases in Indonesia. This department has received various grants for education quality improvement competitions. Namely improving the quality of postgraduate programs through the Project University Research Graduate Education (URGE) in 1997 - 2000, improving the quality of the undergraduate program with Project Quality Undergraduate Education (QUE) in 2000 - 2003, and increasing the quality and relevance to a healthy, autonomous, accountable university. , and contribute to the nation's competitiveness through the B Competition Grant Program in 2005 - 2007.

"The Department of Plant Protection has the advantage of being a trendsetter and reference regarding the science of pests and plant diseases. The publications we produce are always a national reference. Its existence will always be needed as long as agriculture exists," said Dr. Ali Nurmansyah, Chair of the Plant Protection Department.

In his explanation, Dr. Ali conveyed the statistics of graduates of the Plant Protection Undergraduate Study Program and their role in society. In percentage terms, namely agrochemical companies both national and multi-national (40 percent), civil servants (20 percent), State-owned enterprises (13 percent), entrepreneurs (13 percent), and others such as teachers, Community Social Institutions (NGOs), and so on. (14 percent).

The quality of graduates produced by the Plant Protection Study Program is supported by the quality of lecturers as well as a complete educational service system and facilities. The Department of Plant Protection has 37 lecturers consisting of 3 professors, 29 doctors, and 8 masters.

"In terms of certification, we have received accreditation A since 1998. In 2013 - 2017 we have received international accreditation from the Asean University Network - Quality Assurance (AUN-QA) and are currently awaiting assessment by the international accreditation agency ASIIN," added Dr. Ali. .

The Plant Protection Department is highly committed to engaging in the world of agricultural education by conducting teaching, research, training and community service such as services to farmers and the community through the Plant Clinic with its clinic car.

Currently, the Department of Plant Protection offers two educational programs, namely undergraduate programs and postgraduate programs for masters and doctoral degrees.

Plant Protection Study Program students are trained to have skills and knowledge in controlling pests and plant diseases so that they are able to provide and conceptualize recommendations in solving various pest and plant disease problems, lead and design applied research in the field of plant protection.

"The big dream for the Plant Protection Department is that there are more undergraduate graduates who take part at the international level, graduates who are literate with the latest technology (information technology, internet of things, drones, etc.). Research at PTN can be aligned with progress. technology (Technology 4.0) to make it easier for farmers to control pests and plant diseases that are friendly to the environment, "concluded Dr. Ali. (SMH / Zul)

Article in IPB University News: Science of Pest Control and Plant Diseases IPB University Becomes a Trendsetter in Indonesia

Trubus Magazine Coverage: Great Service of Liliput Creatures

A smile adorned Nasir's face because he harvested tomatoes up to 15 times. Previously, the tomato harvest in Nasir's garden was only 7-10 times. The total production also jumped to 5 kg, originally only 4 kg per plant. Of course, the profits of farmers in Bandorasa Kulon Village, Cilimus District, Kuningan Regency, West Java, have also increased. In addition, Nasir harvested leaf vegetables such as caisim 3 days earlier, namely on the 37th day after planting. Nasir's local chilies also last up to 3-5 years from the original 1 year.

 In fact, mealybug pests in rice were resolved 15 days after treatment with certain ingredients. It's relatively fast. It takes 30 days to get rid of the pest if you use a manufacturer's insecticide. Sometimes the use of insecticides causes the rice to die. Nasir indeed cultivates a variety of food crops, vegetables and fruit on nearly 1 hectare of land. "I am happy with the harvest," said the farmer who has been managing the land himself since 2015.

What is Nasir's secret so as to get all these privileges? He relies on fertilizers containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Nasir mix 2-3 tablespoons of powdered PGPR with 3 kg of steamed cassava, 1.5 liters of molasses, 2 kg of brown sugar, and 30 liters of water in a container. He stirred evenly, and closed the container. Fermentation is successful if the solution is fragrant on the 3rd day.

The farmer who is more than 40 years old then filters the fementation product as a brownish prickly solution. Nasir dissolved about 240 ml of starter solution in 17 l of clean water and sprayed it all over the plants. This is how the tomato harvest frequency has increased by 15 times, the caisim harvest is faster, and the chili plants last up to 5 years. Another advantage of using PGPR is that it reduces production costs by up to 40% and the land is more fertile.

Initially Nasir bought 500 kg of synthetic chemical fertilizers every year. Now he only needs 100 kg of synthetic chemical fertilizers every year. "I can save Rp10 million per year," said the man who was born in Kuningan Regency, West Java. The PGPR used by Nasir is special because it comes from the Gunung Ciremai National Park (TNGC) forest area. The farm managed by Nasir is located around TNGC.

PGPR from Mount Ciremai is the result of exploration of biological resources by the TNGC Center and the Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture,IPB University. According to a lecturer at the Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Dr. Ir. Suryo Wiyono, M.Sc.Agr., C-71 is a bacterial isolate that promotes plant growth. The bacteria were able to increase the root length of tomato seedlings by 42.35% and increase the germination of tomatoes by 178%.

 The isolate also makes tomatoes more resistant to leaf spot disease. Another benefit of the isolates originating from the root soil of bamboo also increased the growth of root length, plant height and leaf length of cayenne pepper compared to the control group using artificial chemical fertilizers. Forest Ecosystem Controller (PEH) at TNGC, Asep Uus Susanto, S.Hut., Said the trial of the PGPR formula involved communities in TNGC buffer villages such as Nasir's gardens.

Microb exploration is carried out so that agricultural management around TNGC is more environmentally friendly. Hopefully, in 2016, a Javan Eagle, a resident of TNGC, died. "It is suspected that the bird ate food from outside the area. The type of feed may be snakes or other types, "said Uus. Previously, agricultural practices around TNGC relied more on synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Professor of IPB University in the field of soil science and land resources at the Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Prof. Dr. Ir. Dwi Andreas Santoso, M.S., said that our agricultural system tends to focus on the use of synthetic chemical products. The impact of life and the diversity of microbes in the soil is getting increasingly depressed due to the massive intake of synthetic products.

It is useless to provide fertilizer if there is very little microbial diversity in the soil. For example the use of Urea. Plants cannot absorb urea in the form of urea. Urea must be broken down by microorganisms into ammonium so that it can be absorbed by plants. If the population and diversity of microbes in the soil decrease drastically, it will have an effect on plant growth. Therefore, currently the use of plant growth stimulants is relatively massive.

"Without maintaining the diversity of microbes, the risk for the sustainability of future agriculture is quite large," said the doctoral alumnus of the Faculty of Life Sciences, Technische Universitaet. Braunscweig, Germany, that. Apart from PGPR, the research team also found microbial insect pathogens and frost candidates in TNGC. Microbial groups of insect pathogens, especially planthoppers and bugs in the form of the fungus Hirsutella sp. and Lecanicillium sp. The antifrost candidates were PGMJ isolates from Mount Paraserianthes montana and A1 from the orchid Vanda sp.

 According to Suryo, the discovery of natural microbial antifrost candidates is a new thing in Indonesia. In fact, antifrost microorganisms have been commercialized in the United States. However, the microbes used include genetically modified organisms (GMO). The test results in the field revealed that the antifrost candidate microbes were able to suppress frost damage by around 60% at temperatures of minus 5-9 oC.

"Our microbial germplasm is extraordinary. The benefits of microbes are numerous. We haven't used it optimally, let alone massive, ”said the doctor in the field of Plant Pathology and Protection, an alumnus of The University of Göttingen, Germany. The role of other microbes in agriculture is controlling pests and diseases, decomposers, and making plants adaptive to abiotic stress such as drought. Most recently there is yeast (yeast) to extend the shelf life of fruit. The trick is that microbes reduce the production of ethylene which plays a role in ripening the fruit.

 Andreas said, the use of microbes for agriculture such as PGPR, including biotechnology in general. Biotechnology is the use of organisms and their genes to produce goods and services. The development of microbial utilization for plant growth is quite rapid. Small farmers have applied biotechnology by making local microorganisms (moles).

"The key and the potential of biotechnology actually lies in microorganisms because of their extraordinarily high biodiversity. Microbial is major in biotechnology. It's just that it is very rare to be serious about conserving the microbes. said Andreas who is also the Head of the IPB Biotech Center. Transgenic plant genes were from the bacterium Bacillus turingiensis. Nearly all enzyme production today comes from transgenic microbes.

Microorganisms are not only useful for agriculture. Xanthan gum and pullulan are products of industrial microorganisms. Xanthomonas campestris bacteria produce xanthan gum naturally. The use of polysaccharides, among others, as a stabilizer for drinks. While pullulan is a metabolite of Aureobasidium pullulan. The use of pullulan, among others, as a substitute for starch in the food industry.

Andreas said, "The potential of microbes is extraordinary." There are Streptomycetes sp. at Oregon State University, United States, which produces the highest anti-cancer antibiotics. In fact, there is a streptomycin antibiotic whose bacteria originates from the soil in Jakarta, based on the patent that Andreas saw. He also isolated bacteria in Indonesia to produce electrical energy.

The diversity of microbes in Indonesia is the richest in the world. In fact, until now it has not been answered how many microb species in the world are. Very few are listed at this time. Unfortunately, the extraordinary potential of microbes has not been fully explored. In fact, maybe some microbes could become extinct before being identified and known for their potential. Manager of Indonesian Culture Collection (InaCC), Center for Biological Research, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Dr. Iwan Saskiawan, said that forest fires and illegal logging could lead to the extinction of a type of microorganism.

The results of the research by the macro mushroom research team at the LIPI Biology Research Center showed that the types of macroscopic fungi in the Bogor Botanical Gardens decreased from year to year. It can be indicated that climate change is happening. Either the humidity is lacking or the temperature is increasing. The reason is that there are certain types of fungi that grow at certain temperatures and humidity. You could say that the fungus acts as a bioindicator. In addition to the use of microbes, the increase in crop production is carried out by genetic engineering techniques.

In other words there is the transfer of genes from one species to another. This method still raises pros and cons in Indonesia. Mainly concerned with the long-term effects of genetically modified products in the body.

 Actually, there are quite a lot of transgenic plants in Indonesia. The problem with copyright is due to the many methods and tools patented by large multinational companies. Director of the Indonesian Biotechnology Information Center (IndoBIC), Prof. drh. Bambang Purwantara, M.Sc., Ph. D., said the advantages of biotech crops include increasing productivity, reducing production costs, and making food prices more affordable.

Another advantage of biotech crops is preventing deforestation and maintaining biodiversity. Bambang said that soybean, corn, cotton, canola and alfalfa were the most widely planted biotech crops in 2019. The countries that planted the most biotech crops were the United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and India. According to Andreas, the latest research developments do not have to transfer foreign genes between species.

"There is an approach that we know as gene silencing and gene editing," said the Head of the Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (ICBB) Foundation Advisor. An example of gene silencing is deactivating genes that might interfere with plant growth or decrease production. Meanwhile, making genes that play a role in spurring growth is even more active, including gene editing efforts.

Gene editing to increase crop production and to make plants resistant to environmental stress. According to Andreas, the silencing and gene editing takes place in the plants themselves. This means that we manage the genes present in the plant. There is no transfer of genes to other species as in GMOs. Iwan said, "At the 2020 National Education Day, Minister of Research and Technology Bambang Brojonegoro emphasized that researchers pay attention to the biodiversity of microorganisms because they play an important role in human life in the future."

This means that the government has begun to glance at the great potential of Indonesia's microorganism wealth. Even so, Suryo said, there are several things that must be done for the development of microorganisms, such as a national microb research road map. Upon completion, the research formulation was patented. In addition, there is a need for synergy between researchers, the private sector, and the community. According to Andreas, there must be a strong political will related to microorganism research so that it can be maximally utilized. (Riefza Vebriansyah)

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HIMASITA IPB Holds a Professional Study Responding to the Brown Planthopper Pest Attack

The IPB Plant Protection Student Association (HIMASITA) held a Professional Study 1 with the theme of the Peak of Brown Planthopper Attack (Nilaparvata lugens) 2021. This activity is a work program of the HIMASITA Professional Division and was held twice, Professional Study 1 was held on Saturday, March 27 2021 which was attended by 99 IPB University students, 27 Sriwijaya University students, 8 Lampung University students, 1 Hasanuddin University student, 1 person from the People's Coalition for Food Sovereignty and 11 people from the General.

Speakers who attended the Professional Study 1: Peak Attack of Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) 2021, namely Dr. Ir. Hermanu Triwidodo, M. Sc, Anik Wiati S.P., and Bayu Aji Krisandi. Dr. Ir. Hermanu Triwidodo He is a WBC Pest Expert Lecturer, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University. Anik Wiati S.P. is an alumni of Plant Protection batch 48 and a field practitioner. Bayu Aji Krisandi is a Plant Protection student, batch 53 and the Coordinating Minister for Service and Service for BEM KM IPB in 2019/2020.

The activity was opened with great fanfare by the MC, namely Sri Roro Aminah Adiningtyas, PTN 55 student and Richo Deo Arizona, PTN 56 student, then continued with recitation reading by Vito Montana, PTN 56 student then singing the song Indonesia Raya and Hymne IPB. The Head of Himasita's Report was delivered followed by a speech by Mr. Dr. Ir. Ali Nurmansyah, M.Si, as the Head of the IPB Plant Protection Department, then explained the activities by the Professional division. The event was continued by a moderator, namely Pahmi Idris, a plant protection student, class 54. The first event began with an explanation of material by Ms. Anik Wiati, S.P, regarding the Threats of WBC to the Decrease in Rice Productivity in Tuban. He said that in early 2021 his area, namely Senori sub-district, Tuban regency, was shocked by the brown planthopper attack that occurred in January - February, why was there a scene? This is because the affected rice reaches ± 90 DAS in age. The rice has started to fill and farmers just need to harvest, but the rice is experiencing symptoms such as burning, wilting, brown, and dry. Farmers only allow and do not control because the plants are old. From several images that have been observed, there are 4 points that can be concluded, namely 1) the heaviest symptom of WBC occurs in glutinous rice 2) WBC attacks in my area only occur in rainfed type 3) WBC attacks only occur in rice planted earlier 4 ) In my own plot with a rainfed rice field type, there was no toilet attack because from the start, like the seed treatment using PGPR, the second curing we gave Lecafit, after that we continued to spray the nursery with Lecafit and Beuveria sp. which serves to maintain plant health. At the end of the session, he hoped to find a solution to overcome WBC pests.

The second event was followed by the presentation of material by Bayu Aji Krisandi with a discussion of WBC Threats on decreasing productivity in the Tuban area. he as a trigger in the 1st Professional Study discussed the tragedy of the planthopper attack in Purwabakti Village, Bogor Regency and presented the conditions of attack in the field and based on field observations the tier kebo variety is the preferred variety by WBC compared to the Inpari 30 variety. There are environmental conditions in the rice fields that support the development of brown planthopper attacks. He explained about the threat of WBC on the decline in rice productivity in the Bogor area. The third event presented material on the Prevention and Anticipation of WBC Pest Attacks on Rice Plants. Mr. Hermanu opened with his message that Negligent Blai Sembara Cilaka (forgetting to bring disaster recklessly reaps disaster). The explosion of brown planthopper pests increases if the control carried out in the field uses a lot of synthetic pesticides, the prevention of leafhoppers recommended by Mr. Hermanu, namely returning the straw to the fields, avoiding the use of pesticides, not planting foreign varieties because they are not resistant to pests and diseases plants in Indonesia. The presentation of the material was continued by discussing predictions of brown planthopper attacks and continued with active discussions by the participants. The first question discusses the brown stem planthopper which can be identified by molecular fingerprints because it may have formed tribes in different areas. This WBC attack occurred in early 2021 so farmers were shocked by this phenomenon. The second question discusses that this WBC pest can disappear in a few moments. The loss of WBC pests can be caused by flying to other areas looking for new food sources, namely vegetative stage rice because these insects can fly up to 30 km but are also often carried by the wind. How to avoid planthopper pests by applying a spacing of 30 to 40. The third question was mentioned by Mrs. Siti Herlinda that in the Rawalebak area they had never been attacked by WBC pests, this was due to the inability of farmers to buy synthetic insecticides so that the potential for pest explosions tended to be absent, different from in the region. Banyuasin, with the use of synthetic insecticides at high intensity, actually causes predators and natural enemies to die. The fourth question was discussed by Mr. Ali Nurmansyah that building an early warning system requires data some time before. It must be observed the WBC population, rice varieties, environmental conditions (temperature and humidity), the state of natural enemies, the environment around the rice planting, the distance of the plants and the intensity of insecticide spraying. This can help predict pests and their level of attack. The attack data must be complemented by the attack area. So that it is not enough to build an early warning system because the data is incomplete. So that it is hoped that students can record the data as complete as possible. After the question and answer session, the moderator conveyed the conclusion that the attack of the brown planthopper is getting more violent. The varieties used and the irrigation flow system affect the rate of attack of the brown plant hopper. Rice that is attacked by brown planthopper generally drops 50 DAS. The application of insecticides can not intelligently help the development of the brown planthopper to become more rapid and even become a frightening specter for farmers. After the question and answer session, it was continued with the delivery of certificates to the speakers and documentation of all participants present. The event was closed with recitation reading delivered by Rizki Setiawan, a 56 PTN student and ended with greetings by the MC.

The activity of the Kerofesian Study Webinar 1: The Peak of Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) attack in 2021 received a good response from the participants. Participants looked enthusiastic during the webinar activities. Through Webinar Kerofesian Studies 1: Peak Attack of Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in 2021, we hope that participants can increase their understanding and concern for the importance of plant health, increase knowledge about disease prevention efforts that must be carried out appropriately and sustainably from agricultural and economic aspects, and can be a forum for channeling ideas and thoughts on the importance of plant health in Indonesia and preventing the spread of plant pests and diseases through globalization of trade.

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Retired Prof. Dr. Ir. Aunu Rauf, M.Sc. and Prof. Dr. Ir. Meity Suradji Sinaga, M.Sc.

10 February 2021

Zoom Meeting